Eva Marsal_Parmis Aslanimehr_ Envisioning the Future_Mexico_2018.pdf Allgemein 129 Aufrufe Speichern Drucken Weiterleiten PDF an Freunde weiterleiten: Ihre IP-Adresse wird aus Sicherheitsgründen gespeichert um kriminelle Aktivitäten und unerlaubten Spam zu unterbinden. Leiten Sie nur E-Mails weiter, wo der Empfänger mit dem Versand auch einverstanden ist. Ihre E-Mail Adresse Ihr Name Empfänger E-Mail Adresse Empfänger Name Ihre zusätzliche Nachricht Eigene PDF Hochladen PDF & Publisher Info (QR-Code downloaden) Karlsruhe, 27.11.2018 pdf-ins-internet.de/?p=46959 Eva Marsal,_Parmis Aslanimehr,_ Envisioning the Future,_Mexico_2018.pdf Eva Marsal,_Parmis Aslanimehr,_ Envisioning the Future,_Mexico_2018.pdf Teilen: _ Envisioning the Future_Mexico_2018.pdf_Parmis AslanimehrEva Marsal 1 Envisioning the Future: Narrations of Young Adults about the Future as Part of a Philosophy for Children Project. (American Association for Community of Inquiry conference 2018: Education in a world in crisis: How philosophy for/by children might respond. In Puebla, Mexico, 15th-18th June) Eva Marsal, Parmis Aslanimehr Prof. Dr. Dipl. Psych. Eva Marsal (Germany) Eva Marsal is Professor of Philosophy at the Institute for Philosophy and Theology, University of Education, Karlsruhe and at the University of Warsaw. She studied Lutheran theology, philosophy, and psychology in Heidelberg and entered the Lutheran pastorate in Karlsruhe; she has nine years of academic teaching experience in secondary school in Bretten and Philippsburg; since 2007 she is a Professor for Philosophy. Memberships: Nietzsche Society; German spokesperson for German-Japanese Research Initiative on Philosophizing with Children (DJFPK), NAACI. Research areas: P4C, play, philosophical DQGHWKLFDOGLGDFWLFVWKHFRQFHSWRI³SHUVRQ´1LHW]VFKHTXDOLWDWLYHUHVHDUFKPHWKRGV E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Eingestellt über www.PDF-ins-Internet.de - Haftung für Inhalt und Inhaber aller Rechte ist der Puplisher Kontaktdaten und Anbieterkennung des Puplishers/Autors entnehmen Sie bitte dem PDF-Archives auf www.PDF-ins-Internet.de. 2 Parmis Aslanimehr is a doctoral student in Human Development, Learning and Culture at the University of British Columbia (UBC). Her academic background in psychology and interest in pedagogy has shaped the focus of her 0DVWHU¶V thesis, which revealed the struggles newcomer immigrant children face when adjusting to life in Canada. Parmis has received training sessions on facilitating philosophical dialogue with children and adults, and is a Graduate Research and Teaching Assistant in 8%&¶V faculty of Education. Currently, the focus of her doctoral research with Dr. Barbara Weber explores the phenomenology of mental exile as a result of immigration. Within the framework of the international study ³1DUUDWLYH Dreams, Imagination: Israeli and German Youth Imagine their )XWXUHV´ we would like to present our research on how young Germans imagine and envision the future. This research project was carried out in cooperation with The Center for German Studies at Hebrew University, the Israel Center for Philosophy in Education, the Department of Political Philosophy at Regensburg University, and the Department of Philosophy and Ethics at the University of Education Karlsruhe Eingestellt über www.PDF-ins-Internet.de - Haftung für Inhalt und Inhaber aller Rechte ist der Puplisher Kontaktdaten und Anbieterkennung des Puplishers/Autors entnehmen Sie bitte dem PDF-Archives auf www.PDF-ins-Internet.de. 3 1. Utopias and Dystopias It is generally agreed that 3ODWR¶V Politeia was the first utopia, because running through 3ODWR¶V work is the idea, completely new for that time, that political rule should be based on justice. This meant that the LQGLYLGXDO¶V opportunities for advancement should depend solely on capabilities and achievements as opposed to status, birth, or gender ± an absolutely novel thought. Another theme in Plato concerns the distribution of goods: either power or goods. ³6LQFH Plato, the rejection of individual materialism is like a red thread evident throughout the history of utopian thinking >"@´1 Thus it is already clear in Plato that utopias are based on a new understanding of the world, namely that ³VRFLR-political conditions are not natural or God-given, but were fashioned by human beings and so can also be changed by WKHP´2 3ODWR¶V influence again made itself felt in the early modern era. In the 16th century, Thomas More was the first to take up these ideas and write a utopian novel. 0RUH¶V Utopia gave the literary genre its name. The word utopia derives from the Greek Rȣ ³QRW´ and ĲȩʌȠȢ ³SODFH´ As ³QR SODFH´ utopia thus stands for ³WKH unreality of the location and the events reported from WKHUH´3 In his utopian novel, More criticizes conditions in England and lays out a ³EHWWHU counter-image of what H[LVWV´4 His work models a totality and includes plans for all areas of life. In contrast, modern utopians limit themselves to individual areas such as, for example, ecology. In this utopian writers do not aim for reforms in the sense of socio-historical change, but rather have in mind previously unimaginable radical systemic transformations that will result in the betterment of human life.5 Here utopia holds up a mirror to concrete, given conditions as related to a theme; it is most of all a diagnosis of the times and society, which requires the Other in order to make the Real visible, and serves as an exploration of other possibilities.6 According to S 4 2. Narration Our analysis of young SHRSOH¶V narratives starts out on the one hand from Jerome %UXQHU¶V idea that stories always transport a message, even if the storyteller is not aware of it and has no access to it: Stories are surely not innocent: they have a message, most often so well concealed that even the teller knows not what axe he may grinding. For example, stories typically begin by taking for granted " the ordinariness or normalcy of a given state of things in the world ± what ought to prevail when Red Ridding Hood visits her grandmother, or what a black kid ought to expect on arriving at a school door in Little Rock Arkansas, after Brown v. Board of Education struck down racial segregation. And then the peripeteia upsets the expected sequence ± LW¶V a wolf dressed in *UDQGPD¶V clothes, or Governor )DXEXV¶V Arkansas militia is blocking your entrance ± and the story is on its way, with the initial normative message lurking in the background. (Bruner 2002, pp. 5-6). In every story that begins normally and innocuously, many unexpected, horrible developments may lurk in the background, which will slowly unfold in a Kafkaesque way. Developing an intuition for such things, and then looking more closely at phenomena, becoming sensitive to the entire web of meanings, casting off false, trusting naiveté and noticing the elements that require criticism before they develop their destructive power, could be the first goal in looking at the world as it takes form in narrative. For this variability to become productive in future-oriented narrations, the lesson plan should contain relevant impulses that refer, for example, to the area of political philosophy. It does not matter here that, as with Red Riding Hood, we are dealing only with fictions, since these in turn have a structuring effect on the world and create new categories, thought patterns, and realities, as Bruner emphasizes: In dealing with narrative reality, we like to invoke Gottlob )UHJH¶V classic distinction between ³VHQVH´ and ³UHIHUHQFH´ the former connotational, the latter denotational. And we like to say that literary fiction does not refer to anything in the world but only provides the sense of things. Yet it is the sense of things often derived from narrative that makes later real life reference possible. (Bruner 2002, 5 1. To which narrations am I listening? 2. Which narrations do I allow to influence me? 3. Which narrations are inherent in mine? Narratives incorporate our moral ideas and can explain to us the meanings of our spectrum of actions through concrete everyday situations, in which we produce our moral lives. Our earliest encounter with these explanations comes from the stories of our parents. From the beginning we must learn how to construct our story fragments as answers to the questions our parents ask about what we have just done: ³+RZ did that KDSSHQ"´ screams Dad, as the goldfish flops wildly on the wet carpet, and the four-year-ROG¶V mind searches frantically for a story that concludes with a flopping goldfish yet GRHVQ¶W implicate her. (Johnson 1993, p. 172). Since as small children we are already searching for justifications and explanations for our actions and putting them into everyday stories, it is justified to suppose that in the future-oriented youth narrations personal values serve as reference points on which to base a critique of the status quo. I start from the assumption that these personal values expressed in the utopias of young people (as opposed to the values authors like H.G. Wells or Ursula le Guin create and socially elaborate in their literary utopias), are not newly invented, but are projections of a received, more or less reflected-upon set of contemporaneous values. Thus the personal past, the stories of how they became what they are, is reflected in young SHRSOH¶V future-oriented narratives. Or as Sydney Shoemaker expresses it: A SHUVRQµV past history is the most important source of his knowledge of the world, but it is also an important source of his knowledge and his conception of himself; a SHUVRQ¶V µVHOI-LPDJH¶ his conception of his own character, values and potentialities, is determined to a considerable degree by the way in which he views his own past actions. (Shoemaker 2003, p. 48). These stories, however, also influence our ideas of how and what we want to become and how the world should be, so it is justifiable to take the values represented in the utopian conceptions of the future and connect or match them with the ones the young people had when they composed the narratives. This assumption is the basis of my justification for 6 of the JRGV´ Especially for the related relevant psychological variables such as ³FRJQLWLYH FRQWURO´ ³IXWXUH SUHGLFWLRQ´ ³LQIOXHQFH on personal GHYHORSPHQW´ narrations are important navigational tools. According to Johnson, the relationship between the self and narration is constructed as follows: Connection between Self and Narrative by Mark Johnson (1993 p. 152) Image schemas, prototype structure of categories semantic frames, concectual metaphor and metonymy A central task for any moral theory, therefore, must be to understand how we narratively construct our lives and how our deliberations are framed by those narratives. (Johnson 1993, p. 152). This concept is expanded by Paul Ricoeur through his added focus on moral deliberation. The existentially vital realm of personal moral identity formation is decisive here for our research. Individuals choose the narratives that have an affinity with their self- image, and then use affirmative and contrasting narratives dialectically to conceptualize and elaborate their identities. 3. Imagining the Future in the Classroom The teacher education students and the German author philosophized from June 2012- December 2017 with German students, aged 11-19 years, about present political and ecological situations. After our philosophical discussions, the students were encouraged to write a narration about their own future in their society. This concrete scenario allowed the young people to express their implicit criticisms of the status quo either in desirable utopias or through frightening dystopias. We received 247 realistic stories (Groeben/Christmann 2012), consisting of utopias and dystopias from students in Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg. For my talk, I will use this data and give a summary of my qualitative content analysis (Mayring 2015), including the following categories: Politics, Social World, Private World, Education etc. Each category will be illustrated through some example stories. Due to the fact that the number of 247 participants (130 girls, 117 boys) is not representative, I will use the Shell Youth Studies (Shell Deutschland Holding 2010 /2015) as an ³H[WHUQDO (criterion) YDOLGLW\´ where I will compare the results of this regional study with a recognized study, which examines every 5 years the attitudes German teenagers have and how they cope with the upcoming challenges through qualitative and quantit 7 The clear presentation conveys the understanding, which is precisely that we see the 'connections', [...] The concept of clear presentation is of fundamental importance to us. It describes our form of representation, the way we see things.10 The empirical literary scholars Reinhold Wolff and Norbert Groeben see similar, they write: Only the controlled observation of the work concretization provides the empirical data for the construction / falsification of interpretation hypotheses and thus allows the reality testing of interpretive hypotheses. The hypotheses will be formulate in the second step; they will be derive deductively and inductively. 3.1. Classification of Utopias / Dystopias Utopias show the way forward and provide points of orientation. Their anticipations of the future reveal what is wrong with the present and overcome its flaws in fiction. By criticizing the present and looking to the future, utopias imply a call to purposeful action. Such utopias are necessary for overcoming the strife, injustice and fossilized social structures of the present. Utopias can figure here as imaginations of the future. Wishes, visions and dreams aided by utopian thinking are projected into the future and provide an impetus for change. Dystopias, on the other hand, project a future place or situation as a warning, anticipating the direction that might be taken by questionable negative tendencies in the prevailing worldview. In a dystopian society, the government is authoritarian or totalitarian, which implies repressive social control, and as a result, it is characterized by repression, thought control, torture, poverty, and so on. Utopien Dystopien Sum [Z} N Raw Data Girls Percent Data Girls Raw Data Boys Percent Data Boys Raw Data Girls Percent Data Girls Raw Data Boys Percent Data Boys 102 43 91 39 21 9 8 Table 1: Classification of Utopias / Dystopias Classification of Utopias / Dystopias Percent Data regarding the narrations Sum [Z} 236N Utopias Dystopias Sum [Z} % girls boys girls boys 43 39 9 9 100 Table 2: Classification of Utopias / Dystopias Diagram 1: Classification of Utopias / Dystopias (Percentage) Utopia versus Dystopia Utopia Definition: In a utopian idea, a place or a state is created that exceeds the prevailing world view and follows a high moral standard. In the ideal society outlined above, positive political dreams of humanity are realized. Utopias, thus implicitly or explicitly criticize the present situation. Example: Excerpt from Narration No. N1 boy, 10th grader Fabian: The Other World - The year is 4056. George, a 14-year-old boy, is sitting in his history class and listening attentively. The students open their books and read. At this moment they are learning about the Utopias girls 43% Utopias boys 39% Dystopias boys 9 % Dystopias girls 9% Utopias / Dystopias Eingestellt über www.PDF-ins-Internet.de - Haftung für Inhalt und Inhaber aller Rechte ist der Puplisher Kontaktdaten und Anbieterkennung des Puplishers/Autors entnehmen Sie bitte dem PDF-Archives auf www.PDF-ins-Internet.de. 9 year 2010. At that time war and poverty were still rampant. George is surprised. Today everything is different. What is war? George GRHVQ¶W know this word. As he looks out the window, he sees a car flying by. Down below people are walking along on the water. He also sees a robot helping an old man across the river. He looks again toward the whiteboard as the teacher beams a few dates onto it. In *HRUJH¶V class, all the children are rich. Whereas Fabian implies technological progress enhances peace, helpfulness and prosperity are among the many narratives of boys which revolve solely around ideas of high technology such as solar heaters, suspension railways, and beamed transportation, etc. They think these technological advances improve the quality of life, thus making a pleasant life a possiblity for everyone. Behind this narrative lies the human rights idea that no one should be relegated to a ³ORZHU FODVV´ to perform menial services for others. Machines and especially robots take care of such mechanical tasks. The eleven-year-old Muslim girl Müberra (N 129), however, believes that there will hardly be any technology in (the) future. The focus will rather lie on Muslim religious and social of life. She writes: All the people will have become Muslims. Everybody will be very kind and friendly. Nobody will work for money. I would be very happy if everybody was helpful and nice and if there wasn't so much technology in the future. In the utopian stories all people benefit from a high level of education, if necessary through the implantation of chips into their brains, as in the narrative of the 10th grader Daniela Geiger (N 16. girl): Exactly half an hour before the beginning of classes in the Center for Learning and Knowledge each of us was clicked on and red tweeners loaded very important and new knowledge onto our chips. Dystopia Definition: In this image of the future, a place or a state is created as a warning that shows where critical developments of the prevailing worldview can develop negatively. In a dystopian society, the existing authoritarian or totalitarian forms of government are associated with repressive social control. Thus dystopias are characterized by oppression, the prohibition of thought, torture, and poverty, etc. Example: Excerpt from Narration No. N7 girl 10th grader Georgia Braun: 10 µ:KRHYHU disobeys us will be done away with. Everyone has only one FKDQFH¶ At this point I was hit in the face and blood ran down. I understood their rules and the threat they represented. I was not stupid. After all, I was a lawyer. >"@ When I looked into the mirror the person in the mirror looked directly back at me. Impossible, was all I could think. Then one of the men ZKR¶G been standing there and observing me, amused and silent the whole time, started to speak again. µ"@ I looked one more time into the mirror and trembled. I was looking at the President of the United States. I was the President!! I was their most submissive weapon. The weapon for world domination. The highest level of threat occurs when democracy turns out to be illusory and is unmasked as dictatorship. In some of the more positives narratives and as a consequence of complete democratization, the students talked about how there would be no more war, no poverty, and no hunger. They imagined a remedy for every illness. All people benefited from a high level of education, and nobody was in an upper class, because robots conducted the mechanical tasks. Furthermore the theme, family, occupied an important role in the essays as we found that most of the girls were thinking about how they can integrate work and family. For them, the family resembled security, social anchoring, and emotional support. Dystopias were rarely formulated when they imagined the political system of the future or the ecology. 3.2. Space vs. Time Utopias / Dystopias Thomas More created a utopia that took place in a distant, unknown place, on an island far away. Such is called a space utopia. But nowadays some authors like George Orwell write dystopias for example in the 1949 novel ± Nineteen Eighty-Four (1984) unfolds in their own country, but in a far-off future. These kinds of futures are called dystopias. Most young people preferred this model. I interpreted this as a connection with one's own homeland, which is often found in this rural area. Classification of Space vs. Time Utopias / Dystopias Raw Data 11 Classification of Space and Time Utopias / Dystopias Percent Data regarding the narrations Sum [Z} = 100 % N= 236 (N= narrations) Space Utopias Space Dystopias Time Utopias Time Dystopias Sum [Z} girls boys girls boys girls boys girls boys 3 2 0 0 42 36 8 9 100 Table 4: Classification of Utopias / Dystopias Space and Time Utopias / Dystopias Diagram 2: Space and Time Utopias / Dystopias (Percentage) Space and Time Utopias / Dystopias Explication of categories for the analysis of the narrations of the students, "Utopia": Classification of Space and Time Utopias / Dystopias Space-Utopia Definition: The utopia that takes place in a distant, unknown place. Here you can find new structures or new skills. Example: Excerpt from Narration No. N17 girl, the 10th grader Laura: I know what you're thinking. 4851. We reside in a new world. Progresses in technology allows the inhabitants of the planet Marpiter 1`3 to communicate solely with their thoughts. Despite having a mouth to speak, inhabitants of Marpiter GRQ¶W use it. The mouth is always closed. Feelings can also be exchanged merely through thoughts. Za is an Space Utopias girls 3%Space Utopias boys 2% Time Utopias girls 42% Time Utopias boys 36% Time Dystopias girls 8% Time Dystopias boys 9% Eingestellt über www.PDF-ins-Internet.de - Haftung für Inhalt und Inhaber aller Rechte ist der Puplisher Kontaktdaten und Anbieterkennung des Puplishers/Autors entnehmen Sie bitte dem PDF-Archives auf www.PDF-ins-Internet.de. 12 inhabitant of Marpiter 1`3. She talks to her parents every morning. While having breakfast, her father tells her what he has to do this day and her mother complains about the amount of domestic work to be done. The conversation takes place through their thoughts only. ,W¶V stock-still in the kitchen, only the clock ticks. Even in school, there are not many sounds besides the school-bell. Many adolescents criticize that everyone is so engrossed in his phone that he no longer perceives the others. On the planet Marpiter 1`3 this cannot happen, because everyone perceives the thoughts of others. This narration shows that a utopia can change lives. The initially desired mutual attention has namely its reverse side effects and unravels into a dystopia, if no flanking measures are taken. In this sense, the narration continues, because the newly emerging hero does not possess this special ability. Time-Utopia Definition: The utopia that takes place in a distant unknown time, but in a familiar place and thus aimed at realization. Example: Excerpt from Narration No. N18 boy the 9th grader Tobias: At 5:55 am my beeping alarm clock woke me up. I walked into my kitchen and everything looked different. I GLGQ¶W have an oven anymore; there was just one multi-purpose piece of equipment left. Weird. How could everything change overnight? Whatever. My flat was definitely better. I looked about my flat recognizing a calendar from 2035. Oh dear, 2035! This narration deals with the environmental problem. The new things in the apartment are all powered by renewable energy, and the new car in the garage runs on solar energy. Time-Distopia Definition: The utopia that takes place in a distant unknown time, but in a familiar place and this place is threatened. Example: Excerpt from Narration No. N40 boy the 6th grader Nikolas: The thought rushes around in my head that I'm turning 40 tomorrow. A weird feeling. 40 is a big number. Tomorrow there will not be a threesome but a four. Now I'm going to have breakfast. Then I make the final preparations. Then I go through everything again. Finally, I go to bed late in the evening. After sleeping for two hours, I hear a ringing. I look at the alarm clock 0:01 clock. I am now 40. I go to the door and 13 1.1.3 Local Individual Utopias / Dystopias vs. Global Collective Utopias / Dystopias The difference between local individual utopias / dystopias and global collective utopias / dystopias is the question of the foreground or background. In the individual utopia, the hero who tries to shape his life in the respective world he finds and influences in it is in the foreground. The global collective utopias focuse on societies and the joys and suffering caused by the people in power. This includes the destruction caused by earlier societies, which has affected the people of today globally. But some narratives belong to both categories, since both aspects are equally represented, therefore the sum of the narratives increases here. Classification of Local Individual Utopias / Dystopias vs. Global Collective Utopias / Dystopias Raw Data regarding the narrations Sum [Z} N= 258 (N= Narrations) Local Individual Utopias Local Individual Dystopias Global Collective Utopias Global Collective Dystopias Sum [Z} girls boys girls boys girls boys girls boys 72 51 8 6 44 41 17 19 258 Table 5: Classification of Utopias / Dystopias Classification of Local Individual Utopia/Dystopia vs. Global Collective Utopia/Dystopia Percent Data regarding the narrations Sum [Z}= 100 % N= 258 (N= Narrations) Local Individual Utopias Local Individual Dystopias Global Collective Utopias Global Collective Dystopias Sum [Z} girls boys girls boys girls boys girls boys 14 Diagram 3: Local Individual vs. Global Collective Utopias / Dystopias (Percentage) Explication of categories for the analysis of the narrations of the students, "Utopia": Classification of Local Individual vs. Global Collective Utopias / Dystopias Local Individual Utopia Definition: The focus is on the individual life of a person. Example: Excerpt from Narration No. N3 boy the 10th Daniel: Everything better: The year 2017 A 17-year-old boy is sitting in his bed in the hospital. His eyes switch from the TV to the window back and forth. The news is that the world is getting worse, and people are getting sicker and sicker. He also sees, when he looks out the window, how the world becomes less lively from day to day. He does not like it, he can remember what it was like 10 years ago. Although there were already garbage and cars, but the impact of pollution on the earth was not so strong. It feels as if it is getting worse and worse with Earth. He has cancer. It was discovered half a year ago. It is bone cancer. Exactly the cancer on which his best friend died a year ago after a short two months. But Jonas had a dream. He was firmly convinced that he was going to recover and save the earth afterwards. He believed in himself. At that moment, his doctor came in and told him there was a new way to fight the cancer cells. Jonas was overjoyed. Now he was sure he could also improve the earth. And he'll make it. Three years later, he invents that the garbage that people produce is used to power cars and its emissions return to the air in an environmentally friendly way. He wins the Nobel Prize and saves the world and its creatures. In this very personal narration, the author links his fate to the fate of the world. Not only does he want to become healthy for himself, but also because he feels a mission for the world in himself. The key word is "he believes in himself". Therefore, he has the energy to advance his own healing path, and then to save the world as well. With the help of science, Lok.Indiv. U w 28% Lok.Indiv. D w 15 he can transform the double dystopia, his personal and that of the planet Earth, into a double utopia by defeating his cancer and eliminating the problem of waste and garbage with scientific inventions. Local Individual Dystopia Excerpt from Narration No. N16 girl, the 10 grader Daniela Geiger: Mein kahles Leben "Hey Nel, are you finally coming down? Education and knowledge will start soon! "Toni annoyed me like every morning, always the same! ... I hated it. ... There were only 50 chosen people among us who had creative, artistic ideas and were allowed to live in a place of Eupa. How happy they were. Not locked up in the boring, unimaginative wasteland, not exactly equal to a square centimeter of our chip, which was in the head and which determined our future after our lessons. How full I had that time now. But I only had to live like that for seven days. What would come after that? What was I destined for? "Nel, how long are you going to sleep? Get up and swallow your tablet! "Thanks to Toni, I finally woke up from my thoughts. The 10 hours when the sun was not delivering our energy we lay on mats, in a kind of trance our body always fell into when no sunlight charged our energy level. During this time I was free. My thoughts, dreams and wishes I did not have to hide in these hours. How stupid was Toni's world? She could not think or feel what I felt, just like everyone else 998. ... It was weird to think about what would happen to me in a week, because that was not on my brilliant calendar. His last note was the handover to our tutors and then the timer ended abruptly. With her narration, Daniela Geiger points to the danger of uniformity and the consequences of the suppression of free, critical and creative thinking. She emphasizes the suffering of spiritual poverty. Global Collective Utopia Definition: The focus is on social life. Example: Excerpt from Narration No. N8 girl a 10th grader Walli: Family Rötsköpp (Design a social utopia in the sense of a desirable world!) It is the year 2934. The Rötsköpp family is sitting together around the dinner table as they do every evening. Papa Herman talks about his time in Africa: In the early 16 Another Example is the: Excerpt from Narration No. N183 girl the 7th grader Yupka (13) 2223: The war, hatred, disrespect has stopped. ALL people with different skin colors, languages, nations and cultures are compatible. Everyone has respect for everyone. They don't compare, don't hate each other and every child plays with everyone. So EVERYONE respects everyone, not only humans, but also animals and all other living beings. Respect is the same everywhere and I stand by it. And all are happy and healthy and live their lives the way they want and deserve. The goals for most young people are human rights, which find their expression in the respect and the free development for everyone. Respect is the phrase that is most commonly called, 157 times in the 247 narrations. All other values can be derived from the respect for others and oneself. However, the term "human rights" was not mentioned, and the values of human rights were only recorded in their concrete effects. Finally, the adolescents did not write a theoretical essay, but a piece of imagined future, a narrative² something very personal. Global Collective Dystopia Definition: The focus is on social life, but this life is threatened. Example: Excerpt from Narration No. N58 boy the 10th grader Boris: The End of Civilization I walk the streets of my home village. Silence. Dead silence. The houses, long burned down, only the wind whistles through the dead, burned branches of the trees. That changed everything ... it became the end of civilization, man, he wiped himself out. It began in 2014, when it first came to the raw material war within the supposed European Union. Nuclear war. 94% of humanity wiped out, in one fell swoop. The End. But it continues. Cumbersome. A new beginning. We, the more or less survivors are building new settlements, on the ashes of our old life. Everything is contaminated, but we have no choice. The danger is high, autonomous weapon systems now control the world, no place for humans. They are doing the job we once gave them; Destruction. They are more like us than we can think, but we are now farther than they are. It's a tough fight, many will not survive. A question? To be or not to be! The young people are afraid that the politicians recklessly risk the world because they cann 17 Themes of Utopia: Gender Classification of Utopias / Dystopias Raw Values and Percentages (Narrations und Sentences-Items: Sum [Z} N= 455, Girl: Sum [Z} N= 236, Boys: Sum [Z} N= 219) Kategorien Utopias Raw Values Girls Dystopia s Raw Values Girls Sums Raw Values Girls Prozen tage Girls Utopias Raw Values Boys Dystop ias Raw Values Boys Sums Raw Values Boys Prozen tage Boys Belief 13 3 16 7 16 16 7 Privat World 44 2 46 19 37 3 40 18 Political World 8 4 12 5 10 7 17 8 Social World 37 5 42 18 30 7 37 17 Education 16 1 17 7 11 11 5 Working World 18 2 20 8 14 2 16 7 18 Diagram 4: Percentages of Themes of Utopia: Gender representation of utopian elements The theme family occupies an important place in the essays, see ³3ULYDWH world, girls display 44% and boys 37%. Just as in the essays cited by Haug and Gschwandtner, we find that the girls are thinking about how they can integrate work and family.11 Thus for them the family picture and related gender roles tend to revolve around two parents who work ² in whatever capacity. This conforms not only to the study of Frigga Haug and Ulrike Gschwandtner 12 but also to the results of the ³6KHOO Youth 6WXG\´ In our study the significance attributed to the family is very high. The family stands for security, social anchoring, and emotional support. From a young SHUVRQ¶V point of view, it also has potential to counterbalance the uncertainties of the job market. As a result, many of the JLUOV¶ utopias revolve around the families of the future. The second highest value is ³6RFLDO Word, which refers to friends, their peer groups and so on. The personal life is the most important issue for the young people. But in the narratives of the young people, it also becomes clear that democratic values are regarded as very positive. The Shell Youth Studies also confirm this. As in the studies of 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2015 young people show themselves to be pragmatic about the VRFLHW\¶V challenges. ³:LOOLQJQHVV to contribute, engagement, and a focus on concrete and immediate problems characterize the fundamental attitudes of this JHQHUDWLRQ´13 In summary, one can say that young Germans approach their future with pragmatism and optimism. The encounter with utopias encouraged the students and broadened their horizons. Such is also demonstrated when looking at young people's narratives according the values they represent; meaning, the values of that pertain to young people. The statistical analysis to check the compliance of the raters will be carried out as soon as the data of the other raters are available. 013253850 Nutrition Ecology Technology Transportation Poverty Medicine Work. World Education Social World Political World Privat World Belief Themes of Utopias (%) Utopia Boy 19 Raw Values and Percentages of Ethical Value Categories (Sum: Girls Sum [Z} N= 1218 Value Items / Sum: Boys Sum [Z} N= 1211 Values Items) Ethical Values Girls Raw Values Boys Raw Values Girls Percentage Boys Percentage Autonomy Adventure 136 161 11 13 Luck 58 58 5 5 Love / Feeling of Security 192 158 16 13 Empathy / Compassion Helpfulness 41 37 4 3 Social awareness Respect /Tolerance 200 76 17 6 Education /Reflexion New Skills 159 134 13 11 Environmental awareness Love of Nature /-Animals 126 113 10 9 Politicial awareness / Freedom 9 43 1 4 Law Justice 11 40 1 4 Peace 29 20 Percentages of Ethical Value Categories (Sum: Girls 1218 Value Items / Sum: Boys 1211 Values Items) Diagram 5: Percentages of Ethical Value Categories In contrast to other youth studies (Haug/Gschwandtner, Roth 2007), the aim of our study is not to portray reality, but to open up young people to new perspectives by developing their own utopias (Schubert 2013, Kumpf 2013). Our underlying hypothesis pertains to young people being overtaxed with developing innovative utopian concepts for a whole society, as demonstrated by authors like H.G. Well. However, perhaps young people can think ahead and reflect about the world through formulating their values, along with positively or negatively evaluating social norms and living goods. The hermeneutic analysis of the values of a dystopian narration and a utopian narration Adolescents were presented examples of a dystopian and a utopian narration in order to illustrate an ipsative measure. As an example, we will refer to the dystopia narration N 37, 9th grader Sven: Nothing New, China is still ruler of the world: I already felt how the cream went on my face. Actually, I VKRXOG¶YH immediately worn the sunscreen with SPF 150, but I already saw clouds darkening the blazing sun, so I assumed it FRXOGQ¶W have done too much damage. However, I hoped that it would not start raining because I had left my aluminum-coated umbrella at home. This umbrella was supposed to protect me from the acid rain that was forecasted in our now very precise weather forecasts. I was torn out of my mind as one of the fully automated electric cars drove past me and its driver forgot to activate the GAS system and I approached dangerously close to the eight-lane road. These vintage cars were just not the most reliable. Now I was standing in front of a huge glazed house. I did not want to lose any more time, so I immediately entered my apartment, since it was already dark and the curfew would take effect at any moment. I entered my apartment in Block F and put my bag in a corner and got my food out of the cupboard. I did not have time to warm it up because I wanted to stay in the relaxation room and there was only convenience food. Yet at the push of a button 21 on the box, my delicious turkey was prepared despite its very few nutrients. I got ready and headed to the rest room. Since it was one of the most beautiful in the district I was offered some oddities. This room came with its own 16m waterfall, which was a fake, but mild tropical climate (perfectly imitated from 2016 when it was still there), projecting birds and other animals. I went back to my apartment after two hours. It was late, but the break was good and enjoyable. I turned on the TV and nothing was new: As China continued to rule over all of the Western and Eastern countries, the war was still ongoing in Africa. But here in Area 7e (formerly Germany) they treat us well because we helped them rise to power. With his narration, which describes an evening in the life of his protagonist, the author represents the values of environmental awareness, political consciousness, democracy, freedom, and peace, through showing what happens when these values are destroyed or lost. In his dystopia, Sven warns of the consequences of the climate and environmental catastrophe, as well as of the dictatorship, which can drive one to loneliness, bondage and war. Yet his protagonist is not portrayed as a dystopian figure, however, but as someone who reflects and tries, despite such problems, to maintain his integrity and inner and outer health. For example, he uses all the protection that is offered to him as such. The special sunscreen against the increased UV radiation, the special screen against the acid rain, and the most beautiful relaxation room with the high waterfall, the simulated, mild climate and the projected animals are all instances of protection. This even extends to the technical advancements that satisfy his basic needs, such as living and eating, as claimed by the protagonist himself. Other people can only enter his consciousness as motorists. His only contact with the world seems to be the television. Despite the anonymity and loneliness in which he lives, the protagonist conveys that he feels inwardly safe. Through the protagonist, the author, also represents the values of security and social awareness. However, the protagonist does not seem to think about external resistance. In fact, the dystopia shows no possibility of how or where a possible resistance could begin. Although the entire narration is a criticism, the author also resorts to criticism or 22 And now the narration of a girl: N236 w Kl. 9 Sumea 15 Muslimin It is the year 2026. I live in a big house with my husband and two children. I am already 34 years old. We have enough to eat and drink. We are missing nothing. I run a company that I have founded myself. There are more robots working than humans. This is somewhat sad, because they take the workplace away from many people. Every four years we donate to the poor countries. The world has changed according to the motto, "the rich become richer, the poor SRRUHU´ My children go to school and are quite good. The sad thing is that the teachers have been replaced by robots. We live in a relatively safe place, overlooking all these little villages. What a damn sad life they live. All summer and Whitsun holidays we go to the homeland, Kosovo. Fifteen-year-old Muslim girl Sumea writes her personal utopia. Autonomy is a high value for her, so she sees herself as the head of a self-founded company. This company takes Sumea as a paradigm to point out the aggravation of future conflict, which results from technical development destroying jobs and widening the gap between the rich and the poor. Other young people bring in the environmental damage at this point. Sumea does not offer a political solution, only a religious and personal one, so she wants to donate a larger sum every 4 years. Besides her professional life, her private life with her family is also important to her. Coming originally from a war zone, Kosovo, Sumea emphasizes the peaceful security in which she has enough to eat and can grow. The country of origin is still her home and so she spends her holidays there. Sumea reflects her social situation against the background of her family history, which is marked by migration. Her values are Autonomy as well as Love / Feeling of Security and helpfulness, reflection and peace. The stories of the young people, in fact, are limited only to very small sections of their own lives, which they project into a utopia. The social embedding of their lives are to be made clear (in this context). Thus, the two general functions of utopias also apply to the utopias (dreams, hopes etc.) of the young people because creating 23 philologischer und anthropologischer Orientierung. Berlin: de Gruyter 2012, pp. 299-321. Hawel, Marcus [ed.] Aufschrei der Utopie: Möglichkeiten einer anderen Welt. Hannover : Offizin-Verl., 2006. Haug, Frigga / Gschwandtner, Ulrike. Sternschnuppen: Zukunftserwartungen von Schuljugend heute, Hamburg: Argument Verlag, 2006. Herb, Karlfriedrich / Glaser, Jen / Weber, Barbara / Marsal, Eva / Dobashi, Takara (Eds.): Narrative, Dreams, Imagination: Israeli and German Youth Imagine their Futures (Political Philosophy and Anthropological Studies) Lit. Publisher Münster, Berlin, Wien, Zürich, 2013. Johnson, Mark: Moral Imagination. Implications of Cognitive Science for Ethics. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. 1993. Kumpf, Miriam. Die Bedeutung von Utopien in einer sich wandelnden Welt. der Pädagogische Hochschule Karlsruhe 2011. Marsal, Eva: Ä8WRSLDV as Visions and Dystopias as Warning: Democracy-Related Narrations of Young Germans Imagining the )XWXUH³ in: Narrative, Dreams, Imagination. Israeli and German Youth Imagine their Futures. Karlfriedrich Herb, Jen Glaser, Barbara Weber, Eva Marsal, Takara Dobashi (Ed.) pp.163-172. Marsal, Eva & Dobashi: Theoretical Reflections on Cultural Comparison. In: Herb, Karl Friedrich; Glaser, Jen; Weber, Barbara; Marsal, Eva; Dobashi, Takara: Narrative, Dreams, Imagination. Israeli and German Youth Imagine their Futures. Lit-publisher Berlin 2013, 155-162. Marsal, Eva / Teichman, Sabine / Schubert, Johannes: Narrations by German Youth. In: Herb, Karl Friedrich; Glaser, Jen; Weber, Barbara; Marsal, Eva; Dobashi, Takara: Narrative, Dreams, Imagination. Israeli and German Youth Imagine their Futures. Lit-publisher Berlin 2013, 193-204. Mayring, Philipp. Qualitative Inhaltsanalyse: Grundlagen und Techniken. Frankfurt, Germany: Beltz Pädagogik 2015. Nida-Rümelin, Julian (ed.). Die Gegenwart der Utopie: Zeitkritik und Denkwende. Freiburg; München: Alber, 2011 Roth, Karin. Einstellungen und Utopien der Jugend SPSH-Fortbildung Sommer 2007. http://www.spsh.de/texte/Einstellungen%20und%20Utopien%20der%20Jugend.pdf Shell Deutschland Holding (Ed.). Jugend 2015. Eine pragmatische Generation im Aufbruch. Bonn: Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung, 2015. Shell Deutschland Holding GmbH (Ed.). Jugend 2010. Eine pragmatische Generation behauptet sich. Bonn: Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung 2010. Schubert: Johannes. Zukunftsvorstellungen im Klassenzimmer. Utopien aus philosophischer und historischer Sicht. Pädagogische Hochschule Karlsruhe 2011. Weber, Barbara. Embarking into the Future: How to Dream our Visions into Reality. In: Herb, Karl Friedrich; Glaser, Jen; Weber, Barbara; Marsal, Eva; Dobashi, Takara: Narrative, Dreams, Imagination. Israeli and German Youth Imagine their Futures. Lit-Verlag Berlin 20. Wittgenstein, Ludwig 1967: Philosophische Untersuchungen, Nr. 122. 24 1 Saage 1999 in: Saage, 1999a, p. 172. 2 Mai 2010, p. 8. 3 Gabriel/Gründer/Ritter (ed.) 2001, p. 510. 4 Heesch 2005 b, in: Betz et al. (ed.) 2005, p. 863. 5 Ritzmann 1989, in: Braun (ed.) 1989, p. 42. 6 Vgl. Seeber 1992, S. 181. 7 Saage 1999, S. 186. 8 Freyer 1936 p. 15. 9 See Kumpf 2011. 10 Wittgenstein 1967, Nr. 122, S. 69. 11 Haug /Gschwandtner 2006, p. 38. 12 Haug /Gschwandtner 2006, pp. 22ff. 13 Shell Deutschland Holding GmbH (ed.) 2010, p. 15. 14 Schubert 2011, see part 3.4.5 analysis of the home narratives. Eingestellt über www.PDF-ins-Internet.de - Haftung für Inhalt und Inhaber aller Rechte ist der Puplisher Kontaktdaten und Anbieterkennung des Puplishers/Autors entnehmen Sie bitte dem PDF-Archives auf www.PDF-ins-Internet.de.